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    2020年12月英語四級仔細閱讀試題解析-第一套 Part C(新東方)

    2020-12-15 14:27:42來源:新東方

      新東方在線英語四級頻道考后發布英語四級真題答案解析,同時新東方實力師資團隊將對英語四級真題答案做權威解析,免費領取【大學英語四級真題解析】課程。更多2020年12月大學英語四級聽力真題答案、英語四級作文真題范文、英語四級閱讀真題答案、英語四級翻譯真題答案,請查看【2020年12月大學英語四級真題答案解析】專題。預祝大家高分通過大學英語四級考試!

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      Passage One

      1. Boredom has, paradoxically, become quite interesting to academics lately. In early May, London’s Boring Conference celebrated seven years of delighting in dullness. At this event, people flocked to talks about weather, traffic jams and vending-machine sounds, among other sleep-inducing topics.

      2. What, exactly, is everybody studying? One widely accepted definition of boredom is "the distasteful experience of wanting, but being unable. to engage in satisfying activity.” But how can you quantify a person's boredom level and compare it with someone else’s? In 1986, psychologists introduced the Boredom Proneness Scale, designed to measure an individual’s overall tendency to feel bored. By contrast, the Multidimensional State Boredom scale, developed in 2008, measures a person's felings of boredom in a given situation.

      3. Boredom has been linked to behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling. In fact, many of us would choose pain over boredom. One team of psychologists discovered that two-thirds of men and a quarter of women would rather self-administer electric shocks than sit alone with their thoughts for 15 minutes. Researching this phenomenon, another team asked volunteers to watch boring, sad, or neutar films, during which they could self-administer elecric shocks. The bored volunteers shocked themselves more and harder than the sad or neutral ones did.

      4. But boredom isn't all bad. By encouraging self-reflection and daydreaming, it can spur activity. An early study gave participants abundant time to complete problem-solving and word-association exercises. Once all the obvious answers were exhausted, participants gave more and more incentive answers to combat boredom. A British study took these findings one step further, asking subjects to complete a creative challenge (coming up with a list of alternative uses for a household item). One group of subjects did a boring activity first, while the others went straight to the creative task. Those whose boredom pumps had been primed were more productive.

      5. In our always-connected world, boredom may be a hard-to-define state, but it is a fertile one. Watch paint dry or water boil, or at least put away your smartphone for a while, and you might unlock your next big idea.

      46. When are people likely to experience boredom, according to an accepted psychological definition?

      A) When they don’t have the chance to do what they want.

      B) When they don’t enjoy the materials they are studying.

      C) When they experience something unpleasant.

      D) When they engage in some routine activities.

      47. What does the author say boredom can lead to?

      A) Determination

      B) Mental deterioration

      C) Concentration

      D) Harmful conduct

      48. What is the findings of one team of psychologists in their experiment?

      A) Volunteers prefer watching a boring movie to sitting alone deliberating.

      B) Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom.

      C) Male volunteers are more immune to the effects of boredom than females.

      D) Many volunteers are unable to resist boredom longer than fifteen minutes.

      49. Why does the author say boredom isn’t all bad?

      A) It stimulates memorization.

      B) It may promote creative thinking.

      C) It allows time for relaxation.

      D) It may facilitate independent learning.

      50. What does the author suggests one do when faced with a challenging problem?

      A) Stop idling and think big.

      B) Unlock one’s smartphone.

      C) Look around oneself for stimulation.

      D) Allow oneself some time to be bored.

      【答案】ADBBD

      46. A)When they don’t have the chance to do what they want.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞 an accepted psychological definition定位到第二段第二句。句中“being unable to engage”與A選項中“don't have the chance to do”為同義改寫;“satisfying activity”與A選項中的“what they want”為同義改寫。A 選項忠于原文信息,故選A。

      【干擾排除】B選項中的“studying materials”;C選項中的“experience unpleasant”;原文中沒有提到為無中生有。D選項中的 “engage in”出現在定位句中,但“routine activities”答案句中未出現。

      47. D) Harmful conduct

      【解題思路】題干問作者認為“boredom”會導致什么,定位第三段第一句。該句中“inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking”等都是由無聊引起的不良行為,對應選項D的harmful conduct,即有害的行為。

      【干擾排除】A、B、C選項意思分別為“決心”、“注意力”和“智力衰退”,與答案句不符。

      48. B)Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞“findings”“team of psychologists”和“experiment”定位到第三段第二句。第三段提及的實驗表明:許多志愿者寧愿“self-administer electric shocks”也不愿忍受無聊,該部分與B選項完全吻合, 故選B。

      【干擾排除】選項A意為“志愿者寧愿看無聊電影也不愿獨自無聊地思考”,與答案句意義相反。C選項中的男女志愿者的比較,文中沒有提到,為無中生有。D選項意為“多數志愿者不能忍受無聊超過15分鐘”,答案句中并未提及,故排除。

      49. B) It may promote creative thinking.

      【解題思路】根據題干定位到第四段第五句,該段首句表明“無聊并非一無是處,無聊可以刺激活動?!痹谠摱蜗旅娴恼撌鲋?,實驗人員證明了“boredom”促使志愿者完成“creative challenge”,該句與B選項為同義改寫, 故選B

      【干擾排除】選項A意為“刺激記憶”,未提及。選項詞意為“無聊帶來放松和時間”,同樣未提及。D選項中的“facilitate independent learning”在答案句中并未出現。

      50. D)Allow oneself some time to be bored.

      【解題思路】根據題干中的關鍵詞“a challenging problem”定位第五段。第五段首句表明“無聊是有益處的”;該段第二句中的“watch paint dry or water boil”均為作者的建議,這些“無聊”的行為也許能幫助人們想出解決問題的妙招。故D選項復合題意。

      【干擾排除】A、B選項與答案句意思相反;C選項文章并未提到,故均可排除。

      Passage Two

      1. Forests in countries like Brazil and the Congo get a lot of attention from environmentalists, and it is easy to see why. South America and sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing deforestation on an enormous scale: every year almost 5 million hectares are lost. But forests are also changing in rich Western countries. They are growing larger, both in the sense that they occupy more and that the trees in them and bigger. What is going on?

      2. Forests are spreading in almost all Western countries, with fastest growth in places that historically had rather few tress. In 1990 28% of Spain was forested; now the proportion is 37%. In both Greece and Italy, the growth was from 26% to 32% over the same period. Forests are gradually taking more and in America and Australia. Perhaps most astonishing is the trend in Ireland. Roughly 1% of that country was forested when it became independent in 1922. Forests cover 11% of the land, and the government wants to push the proportion to 18% by the 2040s.

      3. Two things are fertilising this growth. The first is the abandonment of farmland, especially in high, dry places where nothing grows terribly well. When farmers give up trying to earn a living from farming or herding trees simply move in. The second is government policy and subsidy. Throughout history, governments have protected and promoted forests for diverse reasons, ranging from the need for wooden warships to a desire to promote suburban house-building. Nowadays forests are increasingly welcome because they suck in carbon pollution from the air. The justifications change; the desire for more trees remains constant.

      4. The greening of the West does not delight everyone. Farmers complain that land is being taken out of use by generously subsidised tree plantations. Parts of Spain and Portugal suffer from terrible forest fires. Others simply dislike the appearance of forests planted in neat rows. They will have to get used to the trees, however. The growth of Western forests seems almost as unstoppable as deforestation elsewhere.

      51. What is catching environmentalists’ attention nowadays?

      A) Rich countries are stripping poor ones of their resources.

      B) Forests are fast shrinking in many developing countries.

      C) Forests are eating away the fertile farmland worldwide.

      D) Rich countries are doing little to address deforestation.

      52. Which countries have the fastest forest growth?

      A) Those that have newly achieved independence.

      B) Those that at have the greatest demand for timber

      C) Those that used to have the lowest forest coverage.

      D) Those that provide enormous government subsidies.

      53. What has encouraged forest growth historically?

      A) The government’s advocacy.

      B) The use of wood for fuel.

      C) The favorable climate.

      D) The green movement.

      54. What account for our increasing desire for forests?

      A) Their unique scenic beauty.

      B) Their use as fruit plantation.

      C) Their capability of improving air quality.

      D) Their stable supply of building materials.

      55. What does the author conclude about the prospects of forestation?

      A) Deserts in sub-Saharan Africa will diminish gradually.

      B) It will play a more and more important role in people’s lives.

      C) Forest destruction in the developing world will quickly slow down.

      D) Developed and developing countries are moving in opposite direction.

      【答案】BCACD

      51.B) Forests are fast shrinking in many developing countries.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞environmentalists’ attention定位首段第一第二句,第二句表明“南美與非洲大面積森林減少”,這正是吸引環保主義者的原因。該段中提到的巴西與剛果均為發展中國家,故B選項符合題意。

      【干擾排除】A選項中“富國剝奪窮國的資源”,C選項中“森林在侵占耕地面積”;D選項中“發達國家為森林減少無所作為”均為無中生有,故排除。

      52.C)Those that used to have the lowest forest coverage.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞fastest forest growth 和 countries定位第二段首句即可。該句中的with fastest growth in places that historically had rather few tress與C選項為同義改寫;lowest forest coverage(森林覆蓋率)等于“had rather few trees”,符合題意,故選C

      【干擾排除】選項A、B、D中均有個別詞在該段出現,如“independence”,“government'”,但均未細節拼湊,與題干不符,故排除。

      53.A) The government’s advocacy.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞“forest growth”定位第三段。第三段解釋了兩個森林覆蓋在發達國家增長的原因,第一個原因為農民放棄耕地,第二個原因是政府鼓勵支持,前者選項中未提及,只有答案A“政府的提倡”符合,故選A。

      【干擾排除】B“使用木頭做燃料”C“天氣原因”和D“環保運動”等的原因在文章中均為提及,故排除。

      54. C) Their capability of improving air quality.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞increasing desire for forests定位第三段最后兩句,對于“森林覆蓋率不斷增長的需求”的原因是“they suck in carbon pollution from the air.”,即森林可以吸收空氣中的二氧化碳,這句話與C選項為同義改寫,故選C

      【干擾排除】A、B、D三個選項中的個別詞均在文中出現,具有一定的干擾性,定位時需要確保正確選項中包含題干的關鍵詞、或與其有替換與改寫,且能回答題干的問題。

      55. D) Developed and developing countries are moving in opposite direction.

      【解題思路】根據題干關鍵詞the prospects of forestation定位最后一段,該段開頭提到的“the greening of the West”指發達國家的“森林覆蓋率的增加”,最后一句提到“The growth of Western forests seems almost as unstoppable as deforestation elsewhere.”即西方國家“森林覆蓋率的增加”這一趨勢勢不可擋,而其他地方(前文提到的發展中國家)的森林覆蓋率減少的趨勢同樣難以控制形成對比,D選項符合題意,故選。

      【干擾排除】A選項“非洲的沙漠將逐漸消失”文中并未提及, B選項“森林在人類生活中的角色將越來越重要”也沒有提到。C選項“發展中國家森林減少的情況會迅速好轉”與首段內容相反,故均可排除。

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